Study of Matthew 16:18-20 Part 2
8. a. In his address to the crowds gathered in Jerusalem at Pentecost and to Cornelius’ family and friends in Caesarea, Peter used the gospel key of authority given to Him by Jesus’ promise in Matthew 16:19 to open the kingdom of heaven to the Jews and to the Gentiles.
b. Jews (Acts 2:14) and Gentiles (Acts 10:28)
9. a. All of the disciples
b. It’s interesting to note that the phrase binding and loosing was familiar to the disciples according to references cited in the Pulpit Commentary
Lightfoot and Schöttgen have shown, by numerous quotations from the Talmud, that the phrases “bind” and “loose” are repeatedly used by the rabbis to denote the declaration of what is binding and what is immaterial in ethic and religions life. Thus say they, “The school of Hillel binds, the school of Schammai looses or declares indifferent, this or that regulation.”
The passage in Matthew refers to the beginning of the church as a body of people who form the temple for God’s presence foreshadowed by the mobile tent/tabernacle and later temples built of stone.
The passage in John extends the keys to all the disciples and expands to include the forgiveness of sin. Jesus’ blood sacrifice and resurrection made possible the forgiveness of sin without repeatedly sacrificing animals.
In Matthew 18:15-20 binding and loosing extends to the entire church.
I hear the phrase binding and loosing used and taught in the context of spiritual warfare—binding the powers of darkness. The verses do relate to the authority Jesus conveyed to us, especially when two or three agree. But the context also applies to other applications.